two students at a table

Holland Type

John Holland's theory of career development suggests that people seek work environments that fit their personality. He suggests that there are 6 different personality types that are listed below. Most people have 2 or possibly 3 different types that describe them best. Types that are closer together in the diagram below are more similar than types that are farther apart.

REALISTIC
Description:
Action oriented doers. Dislike being deskbound. Enjoy hands-on work with machines and tools. Stable, persistent and traditional. Value practicality and common sense and concerned with present more than the future. Viewed by others as honest, humble, practical, persistent and self- reliant.  Enjoy physical activity and athletics.

Careers:
Strong Interest Inventory scales: Athletic Trainer, Auto Mechanic, Carpenter, electrician, EMT, Engineer, Farmer, Forester, Gardener, Horticultural worker, Military Enlisted, Military Officer, Plumber, Police Officer, Radiologic Technologist, Small Business Owner, Vocational Agriculture Teacher
Other Realistic Careers:
Aircraft Mechanic, Automotive Mechanics, Appraiser, Building Contractor, Cartographer, Electronic Technicians, Exercise Careers, Facilities Planner,  Fish and Game Warden, Jeweler, Optician, Pilot, Secret Service Agent, Software Technician
 
Leisure Activities:
Outdoor recreation, Athletics, Gardening, Building and repairing things, Home maintenance and improvement

Typical Majors:
Horticulture, Agriculture, Environmental Studies, Wildlife Management, Forestry, Agronomy and Soil Science, Animal Science, Civil and electrical Engineering,

INVESTIGATIVE
Description:
Curious, introspective, and independent. Prefer to develop knowledge and work with data and ideas. Enjoy solving intellectual problems. Prefer to create rather than implement. Perceived as analytical, cautious, rational, and intelligent. Tends to be an observer and critic of surroundings. Enjoys theory and dislikes having to persuade or sell to people.

Careers:
Strong Interest Inventory Scales: Audiologist, Biologist, Chemist, Chiropractor, College Professor, Computer Programmer, Dentist, Dietician, Geographer, Geologist, Mathematician, Medical Technician, Optometrist, Pharmacist, Physician, Physicist, Psychologist, Research and Development Manager, Respiratory Therapist, Science Teacher, Sociologist, Veterinarian
Other Investigative Careers:
Astronaut, Biochemist, Cartographer, Ecologist, Inventor, Medical Researcher, Meteorologist, Scientific illustrator, Software Engineer, Social Scientist, Web Site Designer
 
Leisure Activities:
Taking classes, Solitary outdoor activities, Board games like chess, Computers, Visiting museums, Watching documentaries on TV, Photo developing, Scientific hobbies: Botany, Astronomy

Typical Majors:
Actuarial Science, Anthropology, Architecture, Astronomy, Biology, Botany,  Chemistry, Computer Science,  Ecology, Engineering, Economics, Foreign Languages,  Genetics, Geography, Horticulture, Mathematics, Medicine, Microbiology, Nutrition,   Oceanography,  Pharmacy,  Physics, Psychology, Zoology

ARTISTIC
Description:
Intuitive, expressive and spontaneous. Enjoy tasks that rely on artistic, music or verbal skills. Best in unstructured environments. Avoids methodical and routine activities and prefer working independently. Are usually described as imaginative, nonconforming, idealistic and unusual. Values creative ideas and self-expression.
 
Careers:
Strong Interest Inventory scales: Advertising executive, Architect, Artist, Commercial Artist, Fine Art Teacher, Broadcaster, Corporate Trainer, English Teacher, Interior Decorator, Lawyer, Librarian, Medical Illustrator, Musician, Photographer, Public Administrator, Public Relations Director, Reporter, Sociologist, Technical Writer, Translator
Other Artistic Careers: Account Executive, Actor, Art museum director, Author, Chef, Copy Writer, Creative Director, Drama Teacher,  Editor, Fashion Designer, Foreign Language Professor, Graphic Designer,  Illustrator, Journalist,  Screenwriter

Leisure Activities:
Antique restoration, Attending musical and theatrical events, Collecting art, Drawing and painting, Photography, Reading and writing, Interior decorating, Playing musical instruments, Travel, Foreign languages

Typical Majors:
Architecture, Art History, Commercial Art, Culinary Arts,  Drafting, English, Fashion Design, Film Studies,  Foreign Language,  Graphic Design, Interior Design, Journalism,  Law,  Library Science, Music/Dance, Photography, Theater Arts

CONVENTIONAL
Description:

Conscientious, stable, thorough, conservative, enjoy having things run according to plan. Prefer set hours, rules, procedures, and provide follow through. Efficient, willing to follow procedure, and have an eye for detail. Prefer to work with data rather than people or things. Values being thrifty and accurate. Often viewed as careful, rule oriented, efficient and persistent.

Careers:
Strong Interest Inventory scales: Accountant, Actuary, Banker, Bookkeeper, Business Education Teacher, Credit Manager, Dental Assistant, Farmer, Food Service Manager, Mathematics Teacher, Medical Records Technician, Military Enlisted Personnel, Nursing Home Administrator, Paralegal, Secretary, Small Business Owner
Other Conventional Careers:
Accountant, Bank Teller, Budget Clerk, Computer Operator, Court Reporter, Insurance Underwriter, Internal Auditor, Medical Record Technician, Mortgage Loan Closer,  Tax Consultant

Leisure Activities:
Projects for home improvement, Projects involving crafts, Collecting items, Sightseeing, Helping with administrative tasks

Typical Majors:
Accounting, Actuarial Science, Computer Information, Criminal Justice, Economics, Finance, Library Science, Nutrition, Office Administration, Paralegal Studies

ENTERPRISING
Description:

Often prefer activities where they can manipulate others to achieve goals. Prefer working with people rather than data or things.  Energetic, ambitious and fast-paced. Enjoy power, status and wealth. Assertive and persuasive. Enjoy challenge and competition. Often viewed as extroverted, shrewd and ambitious.
 
Careers:
Strong Interest Inventory scales: Agribusiness Manager, Buyer, Chef, Dental Hygienist, Elected Official, Flight Attendant, Florist, Hair Stylist, Human Resources Director, Interior Decorator, Investments Manager, Life Insurance Agent, Marketing Executive, Optician, Purchasing Agent, Realtor, Restaurant Manager, Store Manager, Travel Agent
Other Enterprising Careers:
Executive, Financial Planner, Media Director, Sales Manager, Buyer, Education Administrator, Buyer, Educational Administrator, Lawyer, Lobbyist, Manager of Financial Institution,  Labor Relations Manager, Foreign Service Officer, Sales Representative

Leisure Activities:
Leadership roles in community organizations, Networking at social events, Political activities, Sports, Expensive travel

Typical Majors:
Business Administration, Management , Marketing, Finance, Political Science, International Relations, Speech, Public Administration

SOCIAL
Description:

Kind, generous, and idealistic. Concerned with own feelings and feelings of others.  Enjoy helping people solve personal problems. Would rather cooperate than compete. Prefer working with people rather than data or things. Often viewed by others as helpful, agreeable, patient and understanding.

Careers:
Strong Interest Inventory Scales: Athletic Trainer, Child care provider, Community Service Director, Dietician, Elementary School Teacher, Foreign Language Teacher, Elementary School Teacher, High School Counselor, Home Economics Teacher, Minister, Nurse, Occupational Therapist, Parks and Recreation Coordinator, Physical Education Teacher, Physical Therapist, School Administrator, Social Science Teacher, Social Worker, Special Education Teacher, Speech Pathologist, Park Naturalist, Job Developer, Caseworker, Counseling Psychologist, Homemaker, College Professor, Cruise Director, Training and Personnel, Recreation Therapist, Registered Nurse, Minister, Recreation Leader, Financial Aid Officer
 
Leisure Activities:
Community Service, Religious Activities, Organizing Social Events, Developing Personal Relationships, Entertaining Guests at Home

Typical Majors:
Psychology, Social Work, Nursing, Elementary Education, Religious Studies, Physical Therapy, Recreation Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Child Development, Communication, Speech therapy

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